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Democracy Now Election Day Coverage

Series/Special. Coverage of the 2012 presidential election. New.

NETWORK

DURATION
06:30:00

RATING
PG

SCANNED IN
San Francisco, CA, USA

SOURCE
Comcast Cable

TUNER
Channel 89 (615 MHz)

VIDEO CODEC
mpeg2video

AUDIO CODEC
ac3

PIXEL WIDTH
544

PIXEL HEIGHT
480

TOPIC FREQUENCY

Polaroid 10, Annenberg Media 7, Dr. Glaspy 7, José 7, Dr. Ganz 7, Cyan 6, Buenos Aires 6, Lenny 6, Dr. Bernstein 6, Us 5, Flora 5, Ms. Coscarelli 5, Bueno 5, Rosario 5, United States 4, Arturo 4, Susan 4, Vamos 4, Bien 4, Ucla 3,
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  LINKTV    Democracy Now Election Day Coverage    Series/Special. Coverage of the  
   2012 presidential election. New.  

    November 6, 2012
    4:00 - 10:29pm PST  

4:00pm
annenberg media ♪ narrador: bienvenidos al episodio 49 de destinos: an introduction to spanish. en este episodio, raquel sigue contándole a don fernando y su familia de su investigación. escuchen bien mientras raquel explica como conoció a arturo y como los dos emprendieron la búsqueda de angel. ¿qué querían? iangel!
4:01pm
claro que lo recuerdo bien. era mi amigo. ¿sabe dónde se encuentra? captioning of this program is made possible by the annenberg/cpb project and the geraldine r. dodge foundation. ...y luego, fui a la argentina donde conocí a arturo.
4:02pm
raquel: al llegar al hotel hubo una confusión con mi reservación. felizmente, lo pude arreglar simplemente sin problemas y le pregunté al recepcionista si conocía la estancia santa susana. siento mucho la inconveniencia, señorita. está bien, gracias. ah, se me olvidaba. necesito un carro para mañana. tengo que salir fuera de la ciudad. ¿para qué hora lo necesita? voy a una hacienda que se llama santa susana. sí, la conozco. es la estancia santa susana. está a unos cien kilómetros de aquí. ¿ud. conoce la estancia? sí. conozco toda la zona. ahora estamos por escobar, cerca de los cardales. ud. no es de aquí, ¿no? no. soy de los angeles.
4:03pm
este es mi primer viaje. ilos angeles! yo tengo un amigo en los angeles. se llama carlos lópez. claro, ud. no lo conocerá, ¿no? no hay ninguna señal. no se preocupe. falta poco. cuando llegué a la estancia, tenía muchas esperanzas, claro pero cuando toqué en la puerta un joven contestó y me dijo que rosario no vivía allí que posiblemente uno de los empleados la conociera y supiera algo de ella. busco a la señora rosario del valle... tal vez cirilo lo sepa. bueno, moza. a mí es un gusta conocerla. así que ¿ud. anda buscando a la señora rosario? sí. ¿ud. la conoce? claro que la conozco. muy buena la doña.
4:04pm
lástima que se ha mudado para la capital. ¿y ud. sabe la dirección? bella moza, ella vivía con el hijo, el doctor... ¿el hijo es médico? iclaro! y muy buen hombre. vivía en la calle gorostiaga... al novecientos, eso. una casa blanca-- muy linda casa. en la calle gorostiaga... número novecientos. pues, muchas gracias, señor. por nada. que le vaya bien, moza. volví en seguida a buenos aires. aunque no tenía el número exacto de la casa sabía que podía encontr a rosario si preguntaba por su hijo. voy a preguntar en esta casa a ver si conocen a angel castillo.
4:05pm
buenas tardes. ¿está el doctor? sí, por supuesto, pase. tome asiento. gracias. ( golpes a la puerta ) siga adelante. tiene una paciente, doctor. bueno. buenas tardes. adelante, por favor. pase. bien. por allí.
4:06pm
tome asiento. ¿quién la envía? perdone ud. mi nombre es raquel rodríguez. soy abogada y vengo de los angeles. estoy buscando a una persona. iah! disculpe. pensé que era una paciente. bien. ¿en qué la puedo servir? mire ud. mi cliente, un señor de méxico me ha enviado a buscar a su primera esposa: una señora llamada rosario del valle de iglesias. tengo entendido que su hijo angel castillo, es médico y vive, o vivía, en esta calle. ( suspira ) perdone que lo haya molestado pero pensé que, siendo colegas tal vez ud. podría conocerlo. señorita, ud. está hablando de mi madre y de mi hermano.
4:07pm
¿su hermano? sí. angel. bueno, quiero decir... es mi medio hermano. lleva el apello de su padre pero el primer esposo de mi madre murió. debe haber un error. el murió en la guerra civil española. como arturo estaba desconfiado, le di la carta de teresa suárez y comencé a contarle de mi viaje a españa y de como la señora suárez me había dado la dirección de su madre en la estancia. suárez: rosario no murió. gracias a dios escapó de esa tragedia... pero ella creía que fernando había muerto.
4:08pm
( sin sonido ) raquel: necesito hablar con su madre. tengo también una carta para ella de parte de teresa suárez. ¿está en casa? señorita, mis padres... murieron hace años... lo siento mucho. ipobre don fernando! pero al menos podrá conocer a angel. ¿dónde vive? no lo sé. perdimos contacto hace muchos años... ¿perdieron contacto? iqué lástima! ¿y puedo saber lo qué pasó? arturo me llevó al cementerio, y allí vi la tumba familiar. era verdad. rosario había muerto en buenos aires unos años antes. arturo: aquí están enterrados mis padres. raquel: ¿puedo tomar una foto para mostrársela a don fernando?
4:09pm
arturo: sí, por supuesto. ¿le molesta que hablemos de esto ahora? no. entonces, arturo comenzó a contarme lo que había pasado entre angel y su familia. arturo: mi padre era un hombre muy estricto. quería que angel estudiara ciencias económicas. pero angel tenía otras inclinaciones. mi madre sentía un afecto muy especial por mi hermano. angel fue su primer hijo. una vez, mis padres y yo vinimos a buenos aires a visitar a angel. en esa visita, mi padre descubrió
4:10pm
que angel había abandonado sus estudios. una escena horrible, pues mi padre estaba furioso. ( sin sonido ) esa misma noche, mi padre sufrió de un ataque cardíaco. yo nunca perdoné a angel. dicen que angel se embarcó como marinero y que se fue de buenos aires. un día llegó una carta para mi madre. pero angel nunca volvió a buenos aires. raquel: ud. sabe que yo tengo que buscar
4:11pm
a su hermano, ¿verdad? sí, claro. y por mi parte, creo que ya es hora que yo perdone a mi hermano... que resuelva este asunto. señorita rodríguez ¿podría ayudarla en su investigación? su ayuda será indispensable. bien. salgamos de aquí. y pensemos en nuestra estrategia. al día siguiente, emprendimos la búsqueda de angel. fuimos a la boca, una zona de buenos aires que frecuentaba angel. ese es la calle caminito. la última vez que vi a mi hermano, fue aquí. sus amigos vivían por aquí. el problema es encontrar a alguien que lo recuerde.
4:12pm
y si preguntamos en las tiendas... empecemos por ahí. comenzamos a preguntarles a diferentes personas si conocían al hombre de la foto. nunca lo he visto. gracias. ¿qué tal? perdone, ¿eh? ¿alguna vez, vio ud. a este hombre? ¿me puede dar un dato de él? si no, ¿sabe de alguien que lo conoce? verdaderamente, no lo he visto nunca. no lo conozco. pero de todas maneras... sí. puede ud. preguntar aquí al lado.
4:13pm
buenos días. buenos días. buenos días, señores. ¿desean algún pescado para el almuerzo? ¿o prefieren langostinos, mejillones? tengo de todo, y muy fresco. no, estamos buscando a una persona que frecuentaba esta zona. esta es su fotografía. no. no lo conozco. ¿por qué no pregunten en el negocio de al lado? la señora conoce a todo el mundo. muchas gracias. estoy buscando a mi hermano con el cual perdí contacto hace muchos años. si es tan buen mozo como ud., a lo mejor yo lo tengo escondido. se llama angel castillo. no. buenas tardes.
4:14pm
estamos buscando a mi hermano y lo último que supimos es que se había embarcado como marinero. el tenía amigos por aquí. ¿a lo mejor ud. lo pueda reconocer? hmm... sí, creo que lo recuerdo... pero no estoy seguro. lo siento. por favor, trate de recordar. es muy importante. no, al principio me pareció pero... no, no lo conozco. bueno, gracias. nada. vamos. ah-- el que puede saber es josé. ¿josé? ¿josé? sí, josé. el fue marinero. vive acá al lado. vengan. vamos.
4:15pm
idoña flora! idoña flora! ¿quién es? mario, doña flora. unos señores quieren ver a josé. ¿a josé? ¿para qué? son amigos, doña flora. ¿amigos? ¿y no lo buscaron en el bar? doña flora, a esta hora, está trabajando, ¿no? bueno, entonces vayan a buscarlo donde trabaja, ¿eh? en el barco. gracias, doña flora. debe estar por allá, pasando el puente. arturo: buenos días.
4:16pm
¿alguno de uds. es josé? ijosé! josé: ¿qué? ite buscan! ¿quién? tu mujer. hombre: ya sabe de tus escapadas, ¿eh? yo soy josé. sí, señor. disculpe la molestia. mario nos dijo que tal vez ud. puede conocer a angel castillo, mi hermano. ¿angel castillo? sí, es mi hermano. perdimos contacto hace muchos años. tenía amigos acá. pintaba. le gustaban los barcos. lo siento. no lo conozco. ¿ya hablaron con héctor?
4:17pm
no. ¿quién es? sí, tienen que hablar con héctor. el ha vivido siempre en este barrio. conoce a todo el mundo. seguro que conoció a su hermano. ¿y dónde podemos encontrar a héctor? al día siguiente, por la noche regresamos a la boca para buscar a héctor en una fiesta. hombre: señoras y señores, tengo el honor de presentarles... perdón, ¿conoce ud. a héctor? ¿cómo? héctor. ihéctor! iah, héctor, sí! allí. hombre: inada más y nada menos que héctor condotti! vamos, héctor. ihéctor! ( héctor canta )
4:18pm
( canción termina ) ( aplausos ) dicen que preguntan por mí. sí. quisiéramos hablar con ud. pero con este ruido... ¿podemos hablar afuera? sí, salgamos. ( música continúa ) acompáñanme a casa. ¿qué querían? iangel! claro que lo recuerdo bien. era mi amigo. ¿sabe dónde se encuentra? viajamos mucho juntos. no era un buen marinero, pero lo recomendé igual. era un buen chico.
4:19pm
vamos. ( héctor canta ) angel consiguió trabajo en un barco de carga. creo que iba al caribe pero de eso hace muchos años. ¿al caribe? ¿está seguro? vecino: ia ver si dejan dormir! una vez recibí una carta de él... mujer: ihéctor! ioh! ihéctor, desgraciado, yo sé que estás ahí! ( héctor canta ) imentiroso! iyo sabía! ¿sabes la hora que es? isalí, atorrante! isiempre lo mismo! ique dejen dormir! i...pasando la tarde con tus amigotes! ¿y ahora que hacemos? no sé. por lo menos sabemos dónde vive. podemos venir mañana.
4:20pm
tal vez sea lo mejor. ( se da un portazo ) oiga. oiga... ichis! este cuadro me lo dio angel. ¿ud. no sabe dónde podemos encontrar a angel? no. recibí una carta de él... hace años. angel se había quedado vivir en el extranjero... en otro país. ¿se quedó a vivir en el extranjero? sí. no recuerdo bien qué país era, ¿saben? creo que era puerto rico, pero... no estoy seguro. era un país en el caribe. no sé si puerto rico pero estoy seguro que era en el caribe. sí, posiblemente puerto rico.
4:21pm
¿y la carta? iclaro! ila carta! la tengo que buscar. es muy importante para mí. sí, comprendo. mire, ud. sabe dónde encontrarme. necesito un par de días para buscar la carta. bueno. se lo agradezco muchísimo. no hay de qué. angel era mi amigo. tome. no, no, no. es para ud. es de su hermano. bueno. gracias de nuevo. buenas noches. buenas noches. mujer: héor... va a venir acá inmediatamente. buenas noches. buenas noches. buenas noches... ichis! ( héctor canta )
4:22pm
es una buena pintura. tenía razón cuando decía que angel tenía talento. sí... angel tenía talento. bueno... es tarde. ¿querés tomar un café?
4:23pm
después de unos días héctor llamó a la casa de arturo para decirle que había encontrado la carta. bien. allí estaremos. bueno, gracias. hasta luego. ¿qué hubo? tiene la carta, pero se va a pescar. ¿a pescar? sí, vamos a buscarlo al puerto. ¿está seguro de qué es aquí? me dijo que aquí. iarturo! está aquí abajo.
4:24pm
está fechada en san juan de puerto rico. le da las gracias por su recomendación. dice que no es un verdadero marinero... y que sigue pintando.
4:25pm
ha viajado... por muchos países: francia, inglaterra alemania... y también españa... su país de origen. piensa quedarse a vivir en puerto rico. no quiere volver nunca más a la argentina. aquí está su dirección.
4:26pm
captioned by the caption center wgbh educational foundation
4:27pm
annenberg media ♪ by: for information about this and other annenberg media programs call 1-800-learner and visit us at www.learner.org.
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6:00pm
okay, gang. you go to the zoo, huh? you go to the zoo and you see the peacock. and the peacock spreads its feathers. and as the peacock turns, you noticed that the colors--
6:01pm
the colors of those feathers kinda change a little bit. or you see a child blowing bubbles, great big bubbles, and the bubbles floating off in the wind, yeah? and you look at the bubbles and you see--wow, what you see? beautiful rainbow colors in the bubbles. you see the spectrum. you see all the colors reflecting from the bubbles. isn't that right? or sometimes you take, like, an abalone shell and you hold up the abalone shell and you see the beautiful colors. we call these iridescent colors, yeah? and you're looking at the shell and then you turn the shell a little bit and--hey, wow, the colors change a little bit. or sometimes on a rainy day, you look at gasoline on a wet street. and you look at the gasoline's splotches and--wow, man. they have beautiful colors. and there are rings of colors too. do you have another-- the rings go all the way around like you got green. the green will continue and come all the way around. it's sort of like a contour map, a microscopic contour map of the different elevations of the gasoline on that wet surface. whenever you have a double reflection like that, oftentimes i should say, when you have a double reflection from two surfaces,
6:02pm
these double reflections give you beautiful colors. we call this interference colors. we talked a little bit about interference before, gang. remember? let's briefly review that interference of waves. consider a wave like this maybe, yeah? now, consider another wave locked right on top of it. same frequency, same step, physically say, same what? phase, okay? right in phase. those two waves will add together to be what? a wave of greater amplitude. greater amplitude, same frequency, okay? no big deal, but how about this? consider a wave and another wave starting maybe here. you know, starting at a different point. that wave is out of phase. if it's half-step out of phase, was he in a 180 degrees out of phase. these two waves are out of phase of one another, 180 degrees. they combine to produce what, gang? ain't that nice? they cancel out, okay.
6:03pm
one wave cancels another. the same thing happens with light. i can show you what i mean with this laser. i'm gonna shine a little laser spot on the wall. i'll put the lights out. you guys see that some-- places there, it's very, very--there's little dark spots--splotches. and some places is very bright? lets talk about that and see what's going on. what happened here now, gang, is the lights coming through piece of glass and the glass is irregular and it's kinda fanning out and making a spot on the wall. but there's bound to be some places with that light comes -- in phase here with maybe another point over here. that they come right in the phase and be extra bright. and right down below it might be light coming in like this and light coming in from another little part of that little lens really there like that. and when those two gang up, guess what they do, gang? begin with co. cancel out. cancel out. and over here, they add up.
6:04pm
so over here, you'd have a region that's dark, okay? and that little dark region is the result of light interfering, okay? destructively. over here, it's light in deferring constructively. so you get those bands or those little splotches because of the light interference. you get the same type thing with gasoline on a wet street. here's some light reflecting off some water, okay? light reflects off the water and your eye is up here and your eye sees the light. let's suppose this is blue light, pure blue light shining down, okay, shinning down on some water and bounces off and gets into your eye.
6:05pm
let me ask you a question. what color would the eye see? blue. it's an easy one. begin with blue. i got b. begin with b, okay? you can see blue. you can see blue, right? but let's suppose it's not shining on the water. let's suppose it's shining on gasoline. now, what color is the eye gonna see? blue. begin with b. blue. blue. it's still gonna be blue because it's reflected and we know that light doesn't change its frequency when it reflects. if you got a blue shirt on, you stand in front of a mirror, what color is the image? blue. how about a red shirt? red. could you do green? you get the idea, okay. light doesn't change frequency when it reflects. but what if this gasoline is floating on a surface of water and it will do that. now, you've got two surfaces. some light is reflecting off like this, but some of that light goes down through and reflects off the water surface.
6:06pm
and if it does that in such a way that this distance puts the reflected wave 180 degrees out of phase or out of phase 1/2 step. then when it gangs up with this one, what's it gonna do, gang? what's the eye gonna see? nothing. nothing. the eye is not gonna see light. the lights cancelled out. you see that? now, how thick this is has to do with the wavelength of light while what work for one thickness won't work for another. and it has to do with whether or not the light changes phase when it hits the different surfaces? i'm not gonna get into that part now. it's footnoted in your text. suffice to say, light from a double reflection might have such a distance-- extra distance that by the time it gets back up here, it's out of phase with the part the reflected from the top. that is destruction interference. the eye gonna see nothing. you're not gonna see this in your local environment. what you will see in your local environment is white light from the sun.
6:07pm
the sunlight coming down and hitting the gasoline on a rainy day. you've all noticed that. you notice that? it's gotta be a rainy day that the gasoline gives you the color. why? 'cause the gasoline gotta float on water to give you two surfaces to make reflection from, yeah? okay? now, when white light hits for this particular thickness, the blue is gone. you check with your neighbor and see if your neighbor knows. if the blue is gone from the white reflecting, what color is the eye gonna see? go. what's it gonna be, gang? - green. - something. how many say a yellow or an orange or something like that? yeah, yeah the complementary color of that shade of blue, yeah? we talked about this. we talked about the blue sky, remember? the blue sky scatters off blue.
6:08pm
so given enough sky for the light to get through by the time light gets to you and all the blue is scattered, what do you get left, gang? you get the complementary color. okay? sorta like the orange or the yellow, yeah? so when you take one color out of white light, what you see is the complement, huh? in the same way, the water absorbs the red and so what do we see the red? we see the-- and what do we see the water? we see the water of cyan, the complementary color. same type thing here. now, if you understand that, you can see this. let's suppose the light is coming down. the same thickness of gasoline now, but the light is coming down on a more grazing angle and bounces to your eye. you could do that by taking your eye and say, "hey, i see it sort of a yellow." and you got on like this and all of a sudden, oh, it changes to a different color. and some say, how come it changes? and you say, what is-- no reason for that. it's different angles, different colors. maybe that's--come on. why does it change, gang? the apparent thickness would be greater. wouldn't it? yes. if you're coming in at an angle like this, isn't that a thicker path than this one here? huh? huh? it's like a worm crawling through a book.
6:09pm
the worm crawls from the book, from here to here and says, "hey, pretty short book." now, you hold the book like this and the worm crawls through, as it--"my gosh, an encyclopedia," okay? you get a different apparent thickness for the way you hold it, yeah? and the same thing would happen with light and so light coming in like this. you would cancel a longer wave or a shorter wave? neighbor? through a longer path, would you cancel a longer one or a shorter one? - a longer one. - longer one. so let me ask you a question, gang. let's suppose you happened to cancel out the yellow. and where you're seeing, honey, you ain't seeing the white light, you seeing the white and the yellow ain't there anymore. the yellow have been cancelled. what color your eyes see? check it. what's the neighbor say? if you cancel the yellow, the eye gonna see what? blue.
6:10pm
blue? can you see it's blue? get it? magenta. this saturday night, when you take your bath, use some soap. in fact, splurge. use bubble bath. get a whole lot of bubbles in your bathtub. now, you're taking your bath and your light up above, there's an incandescent lamp, white light, okay? white light shining down on the bubbles. take a look at those bubbles closely. guess what, gang? the highlights ain't white. the highlights are all different... - colors. - hue. how many have noticed that already? how many people have taken baths year after year after year and never looked at the bubbles? look at the bubbles on saturday night, and see if you don't be seeing the bubbles got different colors. and your friends say, "how come the different colors?" and you say, "that's an example of?" physics. begin with i. interference. interference. interference, that's right. you got a bubble like this, maybe you got the white light up above, okay?
6:11pm
okay. and the white light coming down-- here's your eye right here. light come down, hit the bubble, bounced to your eye, yeah? but some of that light bounces from the bottom surface and goes to your eyes. - is that right? - right. aren't there two surfaces to that thin bubble in the way that thing filled? two surfaces. part bounces from the top surface, part from the bottom. hey, what if that extra distance going down through is such that it will cancel out one of the frequencies over here? then, honey, that eye ain't gonna get it. now, if you got white coming down, there's no cancellation. you're gonna see white. but if one color is canceled, you're not gonna see white. let's suppose the color that's canceled happens to be red. then the eye will see what color for that particular bubble? you guys know your color rules? no. you gotta know what the complementary color of red is. we take all the red away, what do you got? green.
6:12pm
you get that green cyan. you got that cyan, the greenish-blue. so the eye over here is gonna see what? greenish-blue, all right? now, you point to the bubble and you say, "hey, that's a greenish-blue bubble right there." right. your friend. your friend looks down. and your friend looks at the same bubble. but for your friend-- this is a different thickness being canceled. maybe this different thickness, maybe what's being canceled here is the yellow. and so your friend sees that light, white minus the yellow, you say, "hey, look at the greenish-blue bubble." and your friend says, "no, it ain't. it's a..." yellow bubble. "blue bubble." so your friends says it's blue, you say it's cyan. who's right? me. what happens in the tub? "i say it's cyan." "i say it's blue." "i say it's cyan." wham, boom--bubble bath. okay, see what's happening? what color you see depends upon what? with everything. what you see depends upon what?
6:13pm
do we all see the same thing? no. huh? depends on your point of view. open up the hood of a car, have the mechanic look at it. now, you look at it. you see the same thing? you see the same thing? no. i remember years ago, a guy was passing around a picture of his girlfriend, says, "hey, you wanna see my girlfriend, man? look at this." takes out this picture, he shows the picture. and we're all looking at-- we're feeling sorry for him, you know? [laughter] and--but to him, to him, he's--"that's my girl." and we're like, "oh, my god, -- pretty." and you start to wonder, do we really all see the same thing, huh? huh? over here, these-- the different bubbles depend upon your point of view, where your head's at, right? what you see depends upon where your head's at. think about it, gang. and you get the different colors. you know these camera lenses? you see these camera lenses. you see that violet hue on the camera lens? ever see that, coated lenses?
6:14pm
and they look violet, don't they? do you know why they look violet? no reason for that. it's just one of those-- no, come on. you know why they look violet? there's a color being canceled. there's a color being deliberately canceled. and the color being deliberately canceled is a color that we're most sensitive to. and if we wanna cut down that reflection in that lens so we don't photographed by film, and we can only do it for one color. we're gonna pick the color that the eye is most sensitive to, that the sun is emitting mostly of. and what is that color, gang? begin with a y, end with mellow. try it. yellow. well, all right then, y-e-l-l-o-w. try it. yellow. good, good. okay, we got it. okay? here's what happens. have these lenses, camera. here's what the problem is. light will be coming in, and come to focus right there, and that's nice 'cause you got your camera film right there, and you want the cam to focus. but some of the light reflects off. it comes out, you don't care.
6:15pm
but then comes back in, reflex out, you don't care. and then comes over here. and part does this. and that comes to focus here. and so what's it gonna do is photograph your film. you don't want that light getting there. you like to get rid of it. there's a way to get rid of light. you can cancel it. so what you do, at least for the yellow part, you can put a thin film there. and that film is one-quarter the wavelength of yellow light. so the light that bounced from here also is ganged up by light that goes here, a quarter, a quarter, a half. and what happens is you'll cancel it out. and so that thin film will cancel all this. it won't happen, and you'll be back to your nice, sharp picture, at least, for the part of the light in the middle of the spectrum. so you, out here--look at the thin--this little thing. if it's canceling yellow on this side, it's canceling yellow on this side 'cause it's the same type of thing. you're getting a double bounce out here. so when you look at that purplish surface, okay, that purplish surface of the lenses,
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it isn't like they got some purple gunk they put on there. no, no, no. it's very, very clear. but the thickness is such that it will cancel out the yellow and give you the complementary color, so you see your coded lenses, the nice purplish color. ain't that neat? you like? yeah. yeah. i bet-- gang, we'll talk about polarization. we talked about charged polarization before. we talked about, like, negative, being on one side of a molecule, positive, on another. polarization, in this sense, is altogether different. we're talking about the lineup of waves. if i take a rope and tie it to the wall, and i shake the rope up and down like this, guess which way the wave will vibrate. how many say, "oh, probably like this"? hey, come on, come on. trick question. no, no. if i shake it up and down like that, the rope will vibrate like that. and the vibration is aligned. we don't say aligned. we say it's polarized. if i shake the rope back and forth horizontally, then i'll generate a horizontally polarized wave. okay? you saw the example in the textbook.
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if i pass these waves through a picket fence, maybe the picket fence can filter them out. it turns out, if i have a picket fence where the fence stakes are all vertical, i have vertical openings. and i shake my rope, and it goes right through the opening. it's like the opening weren't there, the shake goes right on through and the wave travels. that's easy to see. it is very conceptual. if i take the rope and shake it sideways however, it can't--the vibration can't get through the fence. and so what the fence does is it blocks it. and so that's a filter. and i have over here such a thing. here's a polarization filter, okay? and that's what this is. this will allow light to vibrate through going only one way, not another way. i don't know what the plane of this is. i can't see. but the-- and let's suppose it's like this. i have microscopic picket fences like that. i have in the back here a piece of white material that would diffuse light, so that when i shine light through it, it won't-- there won't be too much glare.
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but nevertheless, this is a piece of polaroid filter. and let me tell you how this came to be. it turns out that non-cubic-shaped crystals, all non-cubic crystals-- say, something like this or like a diamond shape. all non-transparent crystals will pass light in two directions, the two preferred directions. the crystalline structure is, sort of, like an orange grove. have you ever drive by an orange grove to see all this-- you see right down? and you're driving-- right down the cliffs, okay? there are certain preferred paths. well, it turns out, light will go through vibrating like this, and light will go through vibrating like that. and over here, no. you'd only get components here and components here. and it turns out, in most crystals, the vibrations in one direction go through quicker than the vibrations in the other. so there's little time delay. and you get beautiful colors as a result of that. get into that a little bit later. but, for now, there are some crystals
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that take this one here and cut it right down, and it's absorbed. this was known at the first part of the century, a lot of people knew that, that they were needle-shaped crystals that would pass light in only one direction, one direction only. a fellow by the name of edwin land knew about that and did something about that. what edwin land did was took all these crystals, this crystalline material, made into, sort of, like a jelly, put it on some cellophane and stretched it. and when he stretched the cellophane, guess what these things here did. what would happen if you held a whole bunch of needles, a whole bunch of needles on a piece of plastic and they point every which way? and you take and you stretch the plastic out. what will the needles do, gang? won't they kinda all line up? that's what land did. and he got them all to line up. and then what he did is he put it down, he'd put another piece of plastic on top, took his wife's iron and ironed it, and cemented those needles to-- and made a million-- more than a million dollars. edwin land patented it.
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and these are polaroid filters. and that's what they, in a sense, are 'cause they're made up of molecules in here which are crystal-- little crystal-- the crystals or molecules that are all lined up in one direction and will allow the light to pass through one way. i can kinda show you that with a lamp here and using tools. you can still see the light. these things must be lined up. what's coming through one comes through the other, but let me turn it. what happens right in there, gang? right in there. can you see that the light doesn't come through? or i can hold this like this and just turn this. comes through, comes through, comes through, doesn't come through. not so much, no much and now it's blocked up. ain't that nice?
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now, hc. how come? this is easy to see. it requires a knowledge of vectors, the arrows. let's take a look. let's suppose my lamp, my original polaroid, is like that. light coming through. what kind of light can it come through, gang? light hitting it is like this. like this that hits it-- but the only part that comes true is the part vibrating like this. so what comes through is light vibrating like that. when i put the other polaroid in the way, the square piece, what happens if-- well, let's try this first of all. what happens if this and this are lined up? will these vibrations get through there? yeah. is the vector falling right through there?
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and--how'd it comes? so the light is not cut out. what happens when i rotate it 90 degrees? okay. is there any component of this along that direction? when we talked about the bowling ball before in the ally, pulling full straight down, a vector straight down and we said this. is there any component 90 degrees to it? and the answer begin with a n. no. same type of thing, see? we got a vector, vertical, there's no component there so nothing gets through. that's what you saw. what's kind of interesting is an angle. let's suppose i put this on an angle. now, this falls on top of there. as you recall, did any light get through? - no. - yeah. some got through. and here's where your vectors come in. this vector here has a component on this direction and a component on this direction. guess which component won't get through.
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this one or this one? this one. that won't get through, see? and you guys remember this? you take a little component here, huh? and here's a-- other component here. and this vector here behaves as if it's really this one and this one at the same time. this one doesn't make it, but this one does. and look what, some comes through. this one is not as big as this one. did you notice the light was not as bright so the light is dimmer? but never the less some comes through. and rock this all the way around, this component keeps getting smaller and smaller, smaller and finally shrinks to zero, and whip, boom, nothing gets through. so that's happens to these polaroids. kinda neat, huh? it turns out that when light reflects from surfaces at a grazing angle, the polaroid's component is preferred, you know? if you're like driving and you have a road surface and the light is coming down, hitting, it turns out the light that would make up the glare
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is polarized in the same plane as the surface. do you ever take these scaly rocks and go out in a pond and you get flat rocks, you wanna scale on across the surface? if you take the rock and you throw it kinda flat, sort of like this, okay? it will--bounce off, yeah. how about you throw it like this? kinda go down, yeah. light does the same thing. light is coming down like this-- bounce, huh? light is coming like this-- gets absorbed. so that's why you get the glasses. what kind of polaroid glasses would you wear to cut out glare from horizontal surfaces? let me show you three pair.
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which would you use, gang? this, this or this for driving. you are a truck driver and you gonna ride along the road, which pair of polaroids? how many say they're all the same? how many say i'd wear these ones here. squint city, honey. what's gonna come through those glasses? polaroids light. you got to drive like this, okay. [laughter] --a cup of coffee, please. okay. occupational you-- no, this is what you get. see. the--yeah. the polaroid glasses that you buy are-- usually like this because most of the glare comes from horizontal surfaces. what if you're a painter all the time? you paint in vertical surfaces then you probably wear glasses like these. i don't where do you get them. okay? but usually the glariest polaroid is horizontal so we cut the horizontal off like that. you're gonna like that, honey, that light came in--it's okay. but--and now what you see is without glare, hmm? do you know what this pair are for? 3ds.
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3d movies, used to be popular. used to be 3d movies where you have two projectors are going one at one time and you've gotta see each scene independently so the polaroids-- one in this way. you got your glasses that way, the other projectors polarizing this way, you got glasses that way. boom. each eye sees an independent view and 3d vision right there. questions on that. question. yeah. polaroid glasses ain't necessarily cut out uv, though, right? no. polaroid--the function of polaroid glasses is to cut out the horizontal component of all light. it turns out all glasses will cut out uv, all glasses. now, what part of the uv? very, very close to the visible part, a lot of glasses will transmit. but the high frequency uv, the kind is dangerous, all glass. and i believe most plastics will cut it out. so anyone that's wearing glasses, you don't have to worry about uv light hitting your glass.
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any kind of glasses. have you heard of the blublockers? the blublockers. i haven't heard of the blublockers. a new kind of glass? yeah. supposedly, it cuts back on the little ray side? do you pay more for it? i don't know. i don't have them yet. i mean, there's a lot of things that these glasses will cut out the uv. well, honey, what glasses won't? okay. you know what i'm saying, so-- i got a question for you, gang, something nice, keep you entertained a little bit. see this? okay.
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i remember the first time i saw what i'm gonna show you now. a fellow came in my office when i was a graduate student and he had three sheets of polaroid. i've never dealt with three sheets. two is enough, yeah. and he had three sheets. and he says, "hey, hewitt. "if i take this third sheet and i put it in front, will light come through?" i said, "nwh." right? okay. here, how about if i put it in the back, will now they come through? and i said nwh, right? he says, "how about if i put it, like, in between the two, will light come through then?" i said nwh--yeah? there's your light, honey. what's this nwh? can you kinda see that? light is getting trough. that's sandwiched in between. over here no, no, yes. to understand that and explain that,
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you need to know something about vectors. you guys, have known about vectors? could you kind of make a little vector diagram showing that how are light does get through? i think you can all do it particularly if you pay attention to your textbook. all right? and can you do that and hand that in next monday? okay. okay. okay, great. all right, physics. catch you later.
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annenberg media ♪ and: with additional funding from these foundations and individuals: and by: and the annual financial support of: ♪ ("american cinema" theme playing) ♪
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♪ (music plays) howard, what are you doing up here? (man) i'm thinking. well, don't think! talk. talk to me! jesus christ! you can't walk out of a meeting like that. you say, "excuse me." you say, "pardon me." otherwise they think it's something that they said. did they say anything? (man) no. howard, talk to me. listen to me. let me remind you of the upside here; okay? you put in a million dollars -- a year, maybe two -- three at the most -- you're walking out with four million bucks. i understand the math, lenny. i just want to rethink things; okay? ♪ (music plays)
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talk to me, howard. listen to me. let me remind you of the upside here. you put in a million. a year and a half, maybe two -- three at the outside -- you take out four million, maybe more. i understand the math, lenny. i just want to rethink things. ♪ (music plays) don't do it, howard. i said, "don't do it." i said, "don't do it." (man) do you know her? hi. i'm howard. i know. i'm susan. (man) okay. great. good. thank you. thanks. (man) you're welcome. we'll be in touch. ♪ (music plays) so what we gotta remember is that the scene that we're gonna shoot first is not the first scene of the film. it's probably -- it's more -- uh ...
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it's actually around page 15 that we're starting. so we've established lenny's character. we've established harold. and we have not yet met susan. and the question i have was, basically: whose point of view should we be looking at as the audience when we come into this scene? whose scene is it? mine. it's got to be mine. it's got to be my scene. it has to be my scene. i pop open the door. i'm screaming like a maniac. hey, i'm there talking to my plants. it's my scene. then i convince him -- i stand there till the last moment -- no, i convince him. (overlapping voices) okay, okay. now, wait a minute. whose scene? i mean, whose scene is it? (man) maybe we'll discover that. i think part of discovery is whose it going to be? but it's as much susan's because she's the one who's up on the stage. it's susan that we're coming to. it's her universe that's being invaded,
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first by you, but quietly. you, aggressively -- you know, lenny, aggressively. but she's also the one who's controlling the scene. oh, my god. sorry i haven't been here. time for watering. all right. howard! what the hell are you doing up here? i'm thinking? "thinking"? as far as this particular scene goes, are we going to be shooting this scene in sequence? are we going to be able to actually go through -- no. we're going to have to shoot out of sequence. some of the setups are a little too complicated. we got dollies. the lighting's going to be tough. we're going to break it up and go by camera setup. let's go over our camera setups on the rooftop. just to orient ourselves,
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we've got our entrance, doorway, got all that nice green garden stuff down in here, susan's space, street. and, over here, water tower where howard's going to be hanging out. we are going to shoot out of sequence. okay? okay. how many camera setups are we gonna have? i think we have four basic setups. camera position one is going to be over in here, for susan's entrance, as well as howard's and lenny's, all three, together. so camera position one, looking down here. all right? door opens. hey. hey, guys. i haven't seen you in a while. camera position two, susan's space,
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down by this garden area. now, look what i brought for you guys. that's to establish susan. that's susan's area. reverse angle on two will be three, more of her point of view. but susan's "pov" is fixed; right? yeah, pretty much. until later in the scene. later in the scene, when she starts getting drawn into the activity, we'll position her somewhere by the skylight so that we'll have a tighter "pov" of howard when he's over by the water tower. excellent camera position one for susan and howard. so this is gonna work. we'll track over all the way to the corner garden area for susan's entrance with her busywork. probably not use either of these shots or this one. i don't want to see them together for a while.
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excellent for lenny's entrance. tighter on the door. excellent. the first setup is from over in here, where we look, we see susan coming up. her space is down in that corner. howard's gonna go this way. lenny's going to hang at the door. the big problem, too, is that the director's line -- the sightline -- is gonna be between susan down there, howard and lenny over here. so everybody's working that side; cameras all over here. right. all right. so when howard and lenny are in here, looking over at susan, they're going to be looking offscreen left. susan, whenever she turns to camera is looking offscreen right. and we just have to make sure that when they finally come together the exits are right, the entrances are right. it's important at a time like this
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to wear an athletic supporter. i know. ♪ (music plays) okay. thank you. you guys are the best. you've seen the roof. nice plants and stuff, but let's augment it. let's add something. that's one. uh, chairs -- i don't know. let's get a couple of wooden chairs, but give me something else. i don't know what it is; don't care. when susan comes up,
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i want her to have something to do. it's her place. yes. plants. plants in a canvas bag, a walkman, a journal, binoculars, bottled water, watering can, a bunch of stuff that she can work with, 'cause i'm very worried about what she's going to be doing on the roof while the argument goes on. okay. so i need whatever you can give me in props to give her something to do that we can believe in. okay. all right. that's really important. let's go with the paisley. it kinda works into the jacket better. i think it will be better for howard. he's quieter. uh, the red ... too much i think. but that's good. that's gonna be fine. ♪ our house, ♪ in the middle of the street ... ♪ forget the walkman. binoculars? the water. binoculars and water. (background conversation)
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same setup for both. turn that back. right. different directions, same track. (background conversation) yeah. dolly charge. so if you could hook that up -- (woman) yeah. i got it. awesome. (background conversation) great. okay. let's -- let's do a -- just a walk-through for dolly. okay. so let's call this our start. okay. and just go for it.
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okay. let's cut. i picked up somebody walking into the frame. but here's the deal. two things. one: that start is just -- no matter what we do it's going to be tough. it's just jumping out on t door and hard to coordinate. so why don't we start wider? i needed to establish the skyline, anyway. so just start on the skyline and -- start on the skyline. find the door. keep it as wide as we pleasantly can. and also i'm a little concerned that we just see so much of this skyline and not susan's face. why don't we move along? let's do that. let's try to shoot it. susan, this is the deal. because you're mostly back to camera -- uh-huh. -- i don't want it to just be walking.
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when you're in here, you haven't seen your friends up here in a while. and i don't want it to be looking like this. i want you to really come back towards camera, so you're in almost a profile to where these guys are. can i pull one of these? yeah. sure you can do that if you need to. but, see, you'd have to do it this way. and i don't want you blocking your face. i'd almost rather just have you take a quick look. you can squint, come back in here. really attractive. here i would like you again to play back towards camera. say, "oh, man. the flowers are working. good deal." hello, my little friends. so that you're not just walking on a straight line. let's try it. scene 7, take 2. (director) camera.
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action. hey, up there. wow! don't you guys look great today? red hot. and cut. okay. that felt good for me. how about you? it's fine. okay. that's good. let's go on to the next shot. camera is rolling. okay. slate it. scene 7, shot 4a, take 2. okay. and dolly. action.
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and cut. that felt pretty good. you got what you wanted? i got what i wanted. i got what i wanted. you got what you wanted. moving on. lenny's entrance next. ♪ (singing in background) (background conversation) yes. stand by. howard. what the hell are you doing up here? thinking? and cut. uh, okay. hold on one sec.
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that was just a little over the edge. that was over the edge, so let's tone it down. i think that you're more you want him -- you're happy you found him. i know he's -- you knew he was up here. but you want to back away. keep it in a little bit. it's a pretty tight shot. it's the tightest shot of the scene so far. so it just seems to me that if you're -- so i know he's up here. yeah. this is where you discovered him. it's like: what am i going to do with you? yeah. he's a kid. what am i going to do with you? (man) scene 7, shot 6, take 3. okay. and action. howard. what the hell are you doing up here? thinking? you don't walk out of a meeting like that!
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you don't just stand up and walk out! you leave a meeting, you say, "excuse me." you say, "pardon me." otherwise, they're thinking that it's something they said. they didn't say anything did they? no. okay. cut. next setup. jason, next setup, i think, is lenny. it's lenny and howard fighting. (man) scene 7. right. it's this mid-ground -- it's the dance. yeah. okay. so, um, it's on tracks, but i think it's curved. we're going to go back, forth; back, forth. (man) reality of the lines being perfect. mm-hmm. i'm not worried about the lines. i really am not worried about the lines. i'm worried about what's going on between you two. i think this last couple of --
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all right. we just did something a second ago that -- it's gonna work? yeah. he started talking to me -- and then i walk away from him again. i like that. but don't make it comedy. ready to rehearse this? rehearse it once. let's do it. we're just shooting. we'll just shoot it. we shoot it. we shoot it. i say: why rehearse? let's do it, gang. the camera's rolling. good energy, guys! the camera's rolling. what are you doing now? stand by. scene 7, shot 7, take 1. did they say anything? no. howard. howard. howard, howard, howard. talk to me. talk to me.
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howard, listen to me. listen to me; listen to me. i want to tell you something. i have no idea what it is. and what i want to tell you is, um ... okay. cut. he forgot his line. i know. but that's okay. i don't give a damn about that. let him, let him go. you catch up. and then come back around for blocking. larry, i don't have lenny. this is just howard. then let's get -- then come this way. is that what you need? action. howard. howard, talk to me. talk to me! talk to me! would you like to listen to me? okay, good. now -- let's cut. i need you to be -- talk to me. talk to me; listen to me. much more aggressive at the top. even higher. talk to me; talk to me.
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then "okay, listen to me" would be the same -- probably inflection, the same energy. and then, in fact, yeah, yeah, yeah. "yes, let me remind you of the upside here." you know it's funny. i won't even look at you until then; okay? let's do it one more time. scene 7, shot 7, take 5. action. they didn't say anything to you? no. howard. howard, talk to me. talk to me! you talk to me! okay. you listen to me. w let meemind you of the upside here. you put in a million dollars, a year and a half, two years, three years at the outside -- you're looking at taking out four million dollars! lenny, i know the math. good! i just want to rethink things. howard, howard, howard. howard, listen to me. we have been working on this deal for a year. you knew every single inch of this property. you knew every page in the design.
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you know all the numbers. what could possibly go wrong? you're worried about putting your mother in a nursing home. you got to find a school for the kids -- i'm not as worried about the risk. you're not worried about the risk? no. are you lying to me? no! come on. let's go do some business. don't do it, howard! okay. that's good. okay; cut. pete, that was a wide shot? yeah. all right. um, i think what you said -- i think i agree with you. we got to do the closeup. yeah. 'cause this is her moment, getting towards the end of the scene. you're gonna need it. it's also a really strong reaction shot. i'm only worried about her sightline. i'm not sure if she should be looking the way we shot her -- offscreen right -- or whether she should be looking back this side. so maybe we should -- well her sightline is to the right. and it looks pretty strong to the right.
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but i think you, just as a precaution, get her looking left. and also it would help you with the dance-around sequence. you might need her look to screen left. don't do it, howard! (woman) what did you say? don't do it, howard! take 1. take 2, 3. don't do it, howard! can you have her on camera? sure. let's go do some business. don't do it, howard! what did you say? i said, "don't do it." when she says, "don't do it" for the first time, she's looking offscreen left? yeah. i know that was a take that i wanted to use, but the sightline's all scwy.rmance was the best, she should be looking offscreen right. we come back to that. let's pick a different take,
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where she's looking in the right screen direction. don't do it, howard! all right. that's not bad. let's try that. do you want to look at the other ones first? no. let's just do this one, get it done. come on. let's go do some business. don't do it, howard! what did you say? i said, "don't do it." yeah. it's better. but, listen. we see her. we see her again. maybe what we should do is to -- i don't like seeing her twice in a row like that. i think it might be more dramatic and more effecve if we have her say, "don't do it" offscreen. and they are moving. and the next shot you see them going towards the door. let's try it and see if you like it. i thought you'd want to see her onscreen saying "don't do it!" but i don't think it's gonna work.
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well, why don't we take a look at it? all right. come on. let's go do some business. don't do it, howard! what did you say? i said, "don't do it." mm-hmm. good. lo. let's move her line up a little bimore because you hear it, and they respond right away. it just feels awkward to me. right. let's hear the line, beat, then a response. i think it's going to feel better. yeah. come on. let's go do some business. don't do it, howard! what did you say? i said, "don't do it." yeah. it's getting better. that's good. okay. ♪ (music plays)
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hey. hi, guys. i haven't seen you in a while. wow. you guys have really grown. look what i brought foyou guys. yo little friend.
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oh, my god. sorry i hat been here. time for watering. all right. howard! what the hell are you doing up here? i'm thinking? "thinking"? you don't walk out of a meeting like that. you don't just stand up and walk out. otherwise they're thinking they said something. howard! howard, talk to me. howard, talk to me! wait. listen to me. listen to me. let me remind you of the upside here; okay? you take a million dollars; okay? a year and a half, maybe two -- three at the outside -- you're walking away with four million dollars, maybe more. lenny, i know the math. good.
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i just want to rethink things. howard, listen to me. we have been working on this deal for a year. you knew every single inch of this property. you know all the numbers. what could go wrong? lenny -- you're worried about putting your mother in a nursing home. you got to find a school for your kids -- i'm not woied about the risk. you're not worried about the risk? no. are you lying to me? no! come on. let's go do some business. don't do it, howard! what did you say? i said "don't do it." excuse me. we're having a personal conversation here. look. i don't know anything about your deal. i just think that you really don't want to do it. thank you.
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♪ (music plays) annenberg media ♪ and: with additional funding from these foundations and individuals: and by
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and the annual support of to order videocassettes for information about this and other annenberg media programs call 1-800-learner and visit us at www.learr.org.
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annenberg media ♪ and: with additional funding from these foundations and individuals: and by: and the annual financial support of: ♪ ("american cinema" theme playing) ♪
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♪ (music plays) howard, what are you doing up here? (man) i'm thinking. well, don't think! talk. talk to me! jesus christ! you can't walk out of a meeting like that. you say, "excuse me." you say, "pardon me." otherwise they think it's something that they said. did they say anything? (man) no. howard, talk to me. listen to me. let me remind you of the upside here; okay? you put in a million dollars -- a year, maybe two -- three at the most -- you're walking out with four million bucks. i understand the math, lenny. i just want to rethink things; okay? ♪ (music plays)
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talk to me, howard. listen to me. let me remind you of the upside here. you put in a million. a year and a half, maybe two -- three at the outside -- you take out four million, maybe more. i understand the math, lenny. i just want to rethink things. ♪ (music plays) don't do it, howard. i said, "don't do it." i said, "don't do it." (man) do you know her? hi. i'm howard. i know. i'm susan. (man) okay. great. good. thank you. thanks. (man) you're welcome. we'll be in touch. ♪ (music plays) so what we gotta remember is that the scene that we're gonna shoot first is not the first scene of the film. it's probably -- it's more -- uh ...
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it's actually around page 15 that we're starting. so we've established lenny's character. we've established harold. and we have not yet met susan. and the question i have was, basically: whose point of view should we be looking at as the audience when we come into this scene? whose scene is it? mine. it's got to be mine. it's got to be my scene. it has to be my scene. i pop open the door. i'm screaming like a maniac. hey, i'm there talking to my plants. it's my scene. then i convince him -- i stand there till the last moment -- no, i convince him. (overlapping voices) okay, okay. now, wait a minute. whose scene? i mean, whose scene is it? (man) maybe we'll discover that. i think part of discovery is whose it going to be? but it's as much susan's because she's the one who's up on the stage. it's susan that we're coming to. it's her universe that's being invaded,
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first by you, but quietly. you, aggressively -- you know, lenny, aggressively. but she's also the one who's controlling the scene. oh, my god. sorry i haven't been here. time for watering. all right. howard! what the hell are you doing up here? i'm thinking? "thinking"? as far as this particular scene goes, are we going to be shooting this scene in sequence? are we going to be able to actually go through -- no. we're going to have to shoot out of sequence. some of the setups are a little too complicated. we got dollies. the lighting's going to be tough. we're going to break it up and go by camera setup. let's go over our camera setups on the rooftop. just to orient ourselves,
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we've got our entrance, doorway, got all that nice green garden stuff down in here, susan's space, street. and, over here, water tower where howard's going to be hanging out. we are going to shoot out of sequence. okay? okay. how many camera setups are we gonna have? i think we have four basic setups. camera position one is going to be over in here, for susan's entrance, as well as howard's and lenny's, all three, together. so camera position one, looking down here. all right? door opens. hey. hey, guys. i haven't seen you in a while. camera position two, susan's space,
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down by this garden area. now, look what i brought for you guys. that's to establish susan. that's susan's area. reverse angle on two will be three, more of her point of view. but susan's "pov" is fixed; right? yeah, pretty much. until later in the scene. later in the scene, when she starts getting drawn into the activity, we'll position her somewhere by the skylight so that we'll have a tighter "pov" of howard when he's over by the water tower. excellent camera position one for susan and howard. so this is gonna work. we'll track over all the way to the corner garden area for susan's entrance with her busywork. probably not use either of these shots or this one. i don't want to see them together for a while.
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excellent for lenny's entrance. tighter on the door. excellent. the first setup is from over in here, where we look, we see susan coming up. her space is down in that corner. howard's gonna go this way. lenny's going to hang at the door. the big problem, too, is that the director's line -- the sightline -- is gonna be between susan down there, howard and lenny over here. so everybody's working that side; cameras all over here. right. all right. so when howard and lenny are in here, looking over at susan, they're going to be looking offscreen left. susan, whenever she turns to camera is looking offscreen right. and we just have to make sure that when they finally come together the exits are right, the entrances are right. it's important at a time like this
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to wear an athletic supporter. i know. ♪ (music plays) okay. thank you. you guys are the best. you've seen the roof. nice plants and stuff, but let's augment it. let's add something. that's one. uh, chairs -- i don't know. let's get a couple of wooden chairs, but give me something else. i don't know what it is; don't care. when susan comes up,
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i want her to have something to do. it's her place. yes. plants. plants in a canvas bag, a walkman, a journal, binoculars, bottled water, watering can, a bunch of stuff that she can work with, 'cause i'm very worried about what she's going to be doing on the roof while the argument goes on. okay. so i need whatever you can give me in props to give her something to do that we can believe in. okay. all right. that's really important. let's go with the paisley. it kinda works into the jacket better. i think it will be better for howard. he's quieter. uh, the red ... too much i think. but that's good. that's gonna be fine. ♪ our house, ♪ in the middle of the street ... ♪ forget the walkman. binoculars? the water. binoculars and water. (background conversation)
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same setup for both. turn that back. right. different directions, same track. (background conversation) yeah. dolly charge. so if you could hook that up -- (woman) yeah. i got it. awesome. (background conversation) great. okay. let's -- let's do a -- just a walk-through for dolly. okay. so let's call this our start. okay. and just go for it.
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okay. let's cut. i picked up somebody walking into the frame. but here's the deal. two things. one: that start is just -- no matter what we do it's going to be tough. it's just jumping out on t door and hard to coordinate. so why don't we start wider? i needed to establish the skyline, anyway. so just start on the skyline and -- start on the skyline. find the door. keep it as wide as we pleasantly can. and also i'm a little concerned that we just see so much of this skyline and not susan's face. why don't we move along? let's do that. let's try to shoot it. susan, this is the deal. because you're mostly back to camera -- uh-huh. -- i don't want it to just be walking.
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when you're in here, you haven't seen your friends up here in a while. and i don't want it to be looking like this. i want you to really come back towards camera, so you're in almost a profile to where these guys are. can i pull one of these? yeah. sure you can do that if you need to. but, see, you'd have to do it this way. and i don't want you blocking your face. i'd almost rather just have you take a quick look. you can squint, come back in here. really attractive. here i would like you again to play back towards camera. say, "oh, man. the flowers are working. good deal." hello, my little friends. so that you're not just walking on a straight line. let's try it. scene 7, take 2. (director) camera.
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action. hey, up there. wow! don't you guys look great today? red hot. and cut. okay. that felt good for me. how about you? it's fine. okay. that's good. let's go on to the next shot. camera is rolling. okay. slate it. scene 7, shot 4a, take 2. okay. and dolly. action.
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and cut. that felt pretty good. you got what you wanted? i got what i wanted. i got what i wanted. you got what you wanted. moving on. lenny's entrance next. ♪ (singing in background) (background conversation) yes. stand by. howard. what the hell are you doing up here? thinking? and cut. uh, okay. hold on one sec.
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that was just a little over the edge. that was over the edge, so let's tone it down. i think that you're more you want him -- you're happy you found him. i know he's -- you knew he was up here. but you want to back away. keep it in a little bit. it's a pretty tight shot. it's the tightest shot of the scene so far. so it just seems to me that if you're -- so i know he's up here. yeah. this is where you discovered him. it's like: what am i going to do with you? yeah. he's a kid. what am i going to do with you? (man) scene 7, shot 6, take 3. okay. and action. howard. what the hell are you doing up here? thinking? you don't walk out of a meeting like that!
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you don't just stand up and walk out! you leave a meeting, you say, "excuse me." you say, "pardon me." otherwise, they're thinking that it's something they said. they didn't say anything did they? no. okay. cut. next setup. jason, next setup, i think, is lenny. it's lenny and howard fighting. (man) scene 7. right. it's this mid-ground -- it's the dance. yeah. okay. so, um, it's on tracks, but i think it's curved. we're going to go back, forth; back, forth. (man) reality of the lines being perfect. mm-hmm. i'm not worried about the lines. i really am not worried about the lines. i'm worried about what's going on between you two. i think this last couple of --
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all right. we just did something a second ago that -- it's gonna work? yeah. he started talking to me -- and then i walk away from him again. i like that. but don't make it comedy. ready to rehearse this? rehearse it once. let's do it. we're just shooting. we'll just shoot it. we shoot it. we shoot it. i say: why rehearse? let's do it, gang. the camera's rolling. good energy, guys! the camera's rolling. what are you doing now? stand by. scene 7, shot 7, take 1. did they say anything? no. howard. howard. howard, howard, howard. talk to me. talk to me.
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howard, listen to me. listen to me; listen to me. i want to tell you something. i have no idea what it is. and what i want to tell you is, um ... okay. cut. he forgot his line. i know. but that's okay. i don't give a damn about that. let him, let him go. you catch up. and then come back around for blocking. larry, i don't have lenny. this is just howard. then let's get -- then come this way. is that what you need? action. howard. howard, talk to me. talk to me! talk to me! would you like to listen to me? okay, good. now -- let's cut. i need you to be -- talk to me. talk to me; listen to me. much more aggressive at the top. even higher. talk to me; talk to me.
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then "okay, listen to me" would be the same -- probably inflection, the same energy. and then, in fact, yeah, yeah, yeah. "yes, let me remind you of the upside here." you know it's funny. i won't even look at you until then; okay? let's do it one more time. scene 7, shot 7, take 5. action. they didn't say anything to you? no. howard. howard, talk to me. talk to me! you talk to me! okay. you listen to me. now let meemind you of the upside here. you put in a million dollars, a year and a half, two years, three years at the outside -- you're looking at taking out four million dollars! lenny, i know the math. good! i just want to rethink things. howard, howard, howard. howard, listen to me. we have been working on this deal for a year. you knew every single inch of this property. you knew every page in the design.
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you know all the numbers. what could possibly go wrong? you're worried about putting your mother in a nursing home. you got to find a school for the kids -- i'm not as worried about the risk. you're not worried about the risk? no. are you lying to me? no! come on. let's go do some business. don't do it, howard! okay. that's good. okay; cut. pete, that was a wide shot? yeah. all right. um, i think what you said -- i think i agree with you. we got to do the closeup. yeah. 'cause this is her moment, getting towards the end of the scene. you're gonna need it. it's also a really strong reaction shot. i'm only worried about her sightline. i'm not sure if she should be looking the way we shot her -- offscreen right -- or whether she should be looking back this side. so maybe we should -- well her sightline is to the right. and it looks pretty strong to the right.
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but i think you, just as a precaution, get her looking left. and also it would help you with the dance-around sequence. you might need her look to screen left. don't do it, howard! (woman) what did you say? don't do it, howard! take 1. take 2, 3. don't do it, howard! can you have her on camera? sure. let's go do some business. don't do it, howard! what did you say? i said, "don't do it." when she says, "don't do it" for the first time, she's looking offscreen left? yeah. i know that was a take that i wanted to use, 'cause i thought the performance was the best, but the sightline's all scwy. she should be looking offscreen right. we come back to that. let's pick a different take,
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where she's looking in the right screen direction. don't do it, howard! all right. that's not bad. let's try that. do you want to look at the other ones first? no. let's just do this one, get it done. come on. let's go do some busess. don't do it, howard! what did you say? i said, "don't do it." yeah. it's better. but, listen. we see her. weee her again. maybe what we should do is to -- i don't like seeing her twice in a row like that. i think it might be mo dramatic and more effective if we have her say, "don't do it" ofcreen. and they are moving. and the next shot you see them going towards the door. let's try it and see if you like it. i thought you'd want to see her onscreen saying "don't do it!" but i don't think it's gonna work.
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well, why don't we take a look at it? all right. come on. let's go do some business. don't do it, howard! what did you say? i said, "don't do it." mm-hmm. good. lo. let'move her line up a little bit more because you hear it, and they respond right away. it just feels awkward to me. right. let's hear the line, beat, then a response. think it's going to feel better. yeah. come on. let's go do some business. don't do it, howard! what did you say? i said, "don't do it." yeah. it's getting better. that's good. okay. ♪ (music plays)
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hey. hi, guys. i haven't seen you in a while. wow. you guys have really grown. look what i brought foyou guys. your little friend.
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oh, my god. sorry i han't been here. time for watering. all right. howard! what the hell are you doing up here? i'm thinking? "thinking"? you don't walk out of a meeting like that. you don't just stand up and walk out. otherwise they're thinking they said something. howard! howard, talk to me. howard, talk to me! wait. listen to me. listen to me. let me remind you of the upside here; okay? you take a million dollars; okay? a year and a half, maybe two -- three at the outside -- you're walking away with four million dollars, maybe more. lenny, i know the math. good.
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i just want to rethink things. howard, listen to me. we have been working on this deal for a year. you knew every single inch of this property. you know all the numbers. what could go wrong? lenny -- you're worried about putting your mother in a nursing home. you got to find a school for your kids -- i'm not woied about the risk. you're not worried about the risk? no. are you lying to me? no! come on. let's go do some biness. don't do it, howard! what did you say? i said "don't do it." excuse me. we're having a personal conversation here. look. i don't know anything about your deal. i just think that you really don't want to do it. thank you.
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♪ (music plays) annenberg media ♪ and: with additional funding from these foundations and individuals: and by
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and the annual support of to order videocassettes for information about this and other annenberg media programs call 1-800-learner and visit us at www.learr.org.
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8:00pm
narrator: it's a rdict no one wants to hear. doctor: the tests came back positive. you have cancer. woman #1: i got kind of hysterical. woman #2: i believed i was going to die. woman #3: you talk about being scared, yeah, i'm terrified of the idea. but today, a cancer verdict need not be a death sentence... especially if the disease is caught in its early stages.
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cancer. a disease that has probably touched your life some way. more than 40 percent of americans will be diagnosed with cancer during their lifetime, and more than 20 percent will die from it. when we talk of cancer, we often refer to it as if it were a single disease. but in reality, it is many diseases. one of the women i was counseling today had a family member who had uterine cancer, one had breast cancer, one had colon, one had cervix. i had to try to explain to her that these diseases were cancer, but were not all related. the cause of each was very different. cancer is a general name for more than 100 different diseases. but what all cancers have in common is uncontrollable growth of cells. cells are the building blocks of all organisms--
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they all grow and divide, but as a rule, only when the body needs new cells to stay healthy. but once cells become cancerous, they reproduce indefinitely. cancer develops in cells that have damaged genes, or mutations. harold varmus: human cancer is a genetic disease in an unusual way. some altered genes are inherited but that's an uncommon event. much more commonly our genes undergo changes in only a few cells during the course of our lifetime. and certain constellations of changes predispose a cell to becoming a runaway-- a maverick cell that we know is a cancer cell. this is the way that we look at people's dna. dna is much too small to actually see, even under a high powered microscope. but, we can use biochemical reactions to amplify the dna. successive mutations to the hereditary material of certain cells
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produce oncogenes-- "on" switches that accelerate cell growth. tumor suppressor genes, "off" switches that restrict growth, may also mutate or... become lost from the hereditary makeup of a cell. when this happens, a cell can make billions of copies of its abnormal self. the excess tissue forms a mass-- a tumor. some tumors are benign... they don't invade nearby tissue or spread to other parts of the body. but a malignant tumor is cancer. its cells can invade and destroy healthy tissue, and spread to other parts of the body through the blood and lymph system. when we get that tumor and we look at the molecular changes in the tumor, we're kind of looking at the end stage. it's not the end stage of the disease for the patient but it's kind of the end product. what we really need to understand is, what is the first mutation that allows that cell to have slight growth advantage?
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in other words, the cell is unstable, and what exposures link to that mutation, that next mutation that might be acquired to do this? this carrier type represents a cell from a malignancy-- a leukemia. and instead of the normal number of chromosomes there are now 47 chromosomes in this cell. there are three copies of chromosome eight, instead of the normal number of two copies of chromosome eight. dr. ganz: and again, if we understand what the risk factor is or the environmental hazard or what the exposure is that leads to a specific mutation, then we can begin to link interventions in terms of reducing the risk of cancer. ccessive genetic changes must take place for a normal cell to change into a cancer cell. that's why the chances of developing cancer increase with age anwith exposure to cancer causing substances, or carcinogens. harold varmus: obviously, environment also contributes to function and disease
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but knowing what genes are inherited by any organism is essential to a full understanding of how they operate and how they misfunction when disease occurs. only five to ten percent of all cancers are thought to be inherited. for instance, women with mothers or sisters who have breast cancer are at increased risk for developing the disease. i'd get it very early, and very treatable... i wasn't surprised because both my mother and my grandmother had-- my maternal grandmother, had had the same kind of late onset. and i had helped them both through their bouts with it. and so i knew when i saw the irregularity in my breast line what it was, and just moved forward from there. the ucla breast center, a unit of the jonsson cancer center, specializes in treating and counseling women at high risk for breast cancer.
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experts from a variety of fields work with patients. a nurse practitioner takes the patient's history... a nutritionist with a special interest in breast cancer talks about the role good nutrition plays in combatting the disease. an exercise specialist introduces the idea of regular exercise and strength training. patients also learn the proper way to perform a self-breast exam. if you felt down in here, you'd feel this just like a marble, only it's usually jagged. and it's very, very hard. the ones that move around usually are benign. the ones that are fixed in the skin are usually malignant.
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the oone of the team members usually is a psychologist who will then go in and actually do a pretty detailed psychological consultation, talking about her individual perception of her risk, her relationship to the members of her family who may have had breast cancer, how she dealt with that, particularly if that member of the family had died from the disease. the kind of counseling i do is more related to the epidemiological risk factors that we know about breast cancer, such as a woman's reproductive history, her biopsy history, mothers and sisters and daughters with breast cancer, whether she has had a pregnancy or not. and all of these factors relate to doing an estimation of her potential risk of breast cancer. and this is where your first level of risk comes in, which is your mom who had breast cancer diagnosed at age 58... i try to reframe what seems like an ominous or threatening situation where gee, you know, so many members of my family have had cancer, it's going to hit me next--
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to being an opportunity to take charge and be empered and to remind them that they, unlike the 80 percent of women who get breast cancer and have no family history and think it's never going to happen to them, they have this opportunity to say, gee, you know, someone in my family has had this. it could happen to me. i need to do some things that might help me minimize my risk. most women are very interested in strategies that they can take to prevent or reduce their risk of cancer. but what of those other 80 percent of women who are stricken with breast cancer and have no family history of the disease? what contributes to their susceptibility? one risk is age. breast cancer is rare in women under 20, but increases from age 20 to 45 or 50 years. in fact, breast cancer is a major cause of death
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for women between the ages of 35 and 45. after the age of 50, risk still increases with age, but not as dramatically. one day i felt a lump in my breast and it felt a little different than the general lumpiness that i was used to. i spoke to my mother who assured me that it was nothing and so i didn't do anything about it. i felt it again a few months later and mentioned something to my friend who said, "why don't you have it checked?" i was 36 at the time, and i gave it some passing thought. another factor appears to be a woman's cumulative exposure to ovarian hormones, particularly estrogen. early menarche, late menopause, or just not having children places a woman at greater peril. but like other factors related to cancer, a woman's genetic blueprint also exerts a major influence.
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if you get two genes in the same estrogen production pathway, with two copies that lead to more estrogen, then at the extremes, one group of women is making quite a bit more estrogen over her life than another woman. and those women turn out to have quite different risks of breast cancer. yet, just because a woman is at risk doesn't mean she will develop breast cancer. and, not having risk factors does not mean that she is safe from the disease. lauren: i was brought up to be very academic and very intellectual, which was an incredible gift from both my parents. but as an adult, i discovered how much i love sports. and so i've been, or until recently was, a nationally ranked competitive power lifter.
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i'd always been aware of cancer sort of peripherally. my father was a specialist in liver cancer research and unfortunately he died of cancer in a very abrupt way when i was around 30. and so i was, partly because of my sport and partly because of that, fairly vigilant about how to take care of myself. and we had been admonished from a young age, never to smoke. i'm pretty much of a cheap date so i didn't drink very much because of my athletics. i was very good about my diet. but in terms of cancer, a healthy lifestyle may not be enough. it's also important to be aware of cancer's warning signals... and to check out anything that seems suspicious. early detection is key to cancer survival. lauren: there was a coupon for a cheap mammogram in the l.a. times. and i thought, well... i'm going to have a baseline fairly soon anyway
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so i might as well save myself a hundred bucks and i'll go do this. breast cancer has shifted dramatically in terms of the kinds of patients we're seeing over the last 20 years. from a women with relatively advanced disease to a very early disease which has resulted not just in less surgery and better cosmetic outcomes but much higher survival rates. and the vast amount of the credit for that can be laid at the feet of mammography and the discovery that it really does alter the outcome of breast cancer in a population, if properly applied. i was called in to have magnification studies and as i left the building, they recommended i see a surgeon the next day. so i kind of panicked. i came rushing home and through some fortuitous good luck was put into the brand new ucla breast clinic that had a really wonderful woman as its director and a multidisciplinary clinic so they looked at all aspects of treatment. she sent me right in for a biopsy, which, of course,
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unfortunately proved positive and i was diagnosed with stage iii lobular breast cancer at the age of 36 or 37. cancer detection methods vary depending on the location of a suspected cancer. oral cancers, for example, can be detected by visual examination. some cancers are found by collecting cells from microscopic examination. this is what happens when a woman gets a pap test for cervical cancer. colon cancer and stomach cancer can be identified with the help of fiberoptic technology. a flexible tube called a fiberscope is inserted in the area under investigation. the fibers transmit an image from the lighted end of the scope
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to an eyepiece or monitor. other cancers that grow within tissues, such as breast cancer and lung cancer, can be detected by x-rays. ct scans and mri's can also be used to find deeply embedded cancers, such as brain cancer. i don't rember being anything but sort of shocked. i couldn't believe it. i had no-- there were no risk factors in my family other than my father, and he was anomalous. i was so healthy, and i mean, i just really didn't know what to do and of course, because i had never thought about it, i was very unprepared. we all have ways of trying to organize what happens to us in a cause/effect relationship in our minds. and that leads us constantly to the same conclusions
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that if something bad happened to me, there must be some very simple linear explanation in my life for what happened, that this particular lifestyle, this stress at work, this or that is the reason i got sick. what causes genes to mutate? are there factors that set such events in motion? answers to these questions could lead not only to a cure for certain types of cancers, but also to prevention strategies that would lessen the impact of the disease. dr. ganz: it's complicated because risk factors for one disease may not be the same for another. i think there are a group of them where we know that diet and lifestyle make a difference. we know that for a group of cancers, cigarette smoking makes a difference. dr. glaspy: the lung cancer epidemiology story has been relatively easy to dissect and figure out what the lessons are. with respect to some other cancers, there are similar epidemiologic data
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but we don't understand why. pieces of the puzzle, however, are being extracted from epidemiological data-- particularly detailed studies that record the incidence of cancer, and how it relates to the racial, ethnic, geographic, and lifestyle characteristics of its victims. leslie bernstein: we have a program here at the university of southern california called the cancer surveillance program. this is one of a number of population based cancer registries around the country. a population based cancer registry defines geographic boundaries of a population and then collects information on cancer that develops in the population living within that geographic boundary. in the late 1970s, brian henderson was working at a mission hospital in new guinea when the chinese government asked him to be a consultant on cancer.
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dr. henderson: premiere zhou en lai had bladder cancer. in the course of his illness, he became interested in cancer and actually was a mover in getting a national register of cancer cases. a million barefoot doctors in every village in china recorded every cause of death. and then, the chinese, using relatively unsophisticated computer technology made maps of the distribution of cancer. they knew where concentrations of cancer victims were located, but not why. why was there more stomach cancer in certain parts of the country... more liver cancer in others? that was what dr. henderson was asked to find out. dr. henderson: there was a friend of mine working in taiwan at the time who published an elegant study showing that hepatitis b virus
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looked like a common explanation in taiwan for liver cancer. so we did studies with them, collected blood from about 10,000 people, tested the blood back here in the united states, and followed them and demonstrated that the same virus was causing liver cancer in china. and from that evolved a series of national vaccination programs. it's just such breakthroughs that have intensified data collection efforts around the world. dr. bernstein: we collect information on the type of tumor and all of the characteristics of the cancer, the stage, the cell type, the extent of disease, laterality, anything we can get about that. we also collect information about the individual who is diagnosed with cancer-- their gender, male or female,
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their race or ethnic background, their age, where they were born, if we can get that information, what their last occupation was. we're able then to look at patterns of cancer in the population over time. looking at this data over the last 25 years has revealed some significant differences among populations of people. in a western society, the important cancers are cancer of the prostate gland for men, breast cancer for women. lung cancer for both men and women, colon cancer. when you look at countries like china or other less developed countries in asia, what you tend to see are greater importance for liver cancer, cervical cancer for women and esophageal cancer being very important cancer.
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what we haven't been able to do yet, in general, is translate that epidemiological data into insights into what causes the higher rates of cancers in some countries compared to others. we know now why lung cancer varies from country to country. we know why melanoma-- this is the bad kind of skin cancer-- why its patterns vary regionally, having to do with sun exposure, but we don't understand why women in japan have lower breast cancer incidences than women in the united states, and in men, prostate cancer follows a very similar pattern. that's a clue that a lot of people are trying to follow up on to see if we can't a: figure it out and then b: see what that teaches us about the biology of how we get
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prostate cancer or breast cancer and if it's something that we can intervene with. what about variances among racial and ethnic groups? dr. bernstein: we believe much of that is not genetic differences but more exposure differences, lifestyle differences, environmental differences. one example is very typical nasopharyngeal cancer-- very rarely do we see such a cancer in the white population or in the african american population but it is a cancer that is important for chinese, vietnamese and koreans. we've studied this greatly here at the university and feel that dietary patterns may have some impact on the incidence of this cancer and in fact, a particular food, chinese salted fish, seems to be very predictive
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that the amount of consumption of this salted fish, this product, is predictive of future risk of this disease. but even if the cause and effect is not clear, cancer is a disease that is influenced by lifestyle choices. some researchers claim that eating right, staying physically active, watching your weight, and not smoking could reduce your cancer risk by 60 to 70 percent. but even with this information, how many people are willing to make lifestyle changes? dr. glaspy: we've seen a little bit less lung cancer in men but that's been made up for by lung cancer in women. and that's been kind of a failure, not as a medical profession but as a society, for us to translate our discoveries of what causes lung cancer into an effective prevention strategy that people adopt.
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i think we really have to persuade the public, and i think we will in the future, of the long natural history of cancer-- i again try to explain to people that often why we get cancer in our 50s or 60s may be an exposure when we were young. the sunburn that we had on the beach when we were a teenager may lead to the melanoma or the other skin cancers that we have in our 40s or 50s. and to try and connect those thing may be very difficult in an individual person but it's our whole way of life over a long period of time when we're not even thinking about it. dr. bernstein: my mom says to me, you know, what's the point in living? everything i do, everything i eat, everything i don't eat, every vitamin i take or don't take, the air i breathe, the clothes i wear, there's a risk and a benefit to it and it's all so very confusing. there are some choices that people can make, however, that have the unanimous support of the medical community.
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dr. bernstein: the first thing i would say is don't smoke anything... because smoking increases the risk of lung cancer. it's associated with increased risk of esophageal cancer, laryngeal cancer. it's associated with bladder cancer, so getting rid of smoking, i mean, that would be number one. dr. glaspy: they probably should avoid secondhand smoke to the extent possible. and then i think their dietary manipulations ought to be aimed at the prevention of heart disease for a little while longer because we understand how that works. heart disease is a more common disease than cancer and it makes more sense to focus your diet there. probably when the dust settles, those diets are going to be the ones that turn out to lower cancer risks as well.
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dr. bernstein: i would probably suggest getting lots of exercise... or making exercise a regular lifestyle habit, because there are certain cancers where we know that the exercise reduces your risk. exercise does definitely reduce your risk of colon cancer. we see it in studies of men. we see it in studies of women. i think obesity is related to risk of several cancers so people who are extremely heavy have higher risk of certain cancers. i want to mention that i'm very excited about the potential that we're on the brink of having medications that dramatically lower cancer risks. and i would predict that in the next five or ten years, we will have recommendations that people take a certain type of pill after a certain age
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that lowers the potential to develop cancer because we'll understand which cell processes, as a background noise, contribute to the genetic mutations that cause cancer, and have effective treatments for them. we're probably never going to be able to eradicate all cancers. i think it's going to be very unlikely. so we have to use these other strategies of prevention and that's why in my midlife, i really began to take this on as a passion in terms of what we need to do, in terms of thinking about the ten or 20 years before we even diagnosed that first cancer-- what can we do to change behavior, lifestyle and identify people who are at high risk so that we can somehow modify that risk and actually prevent the disease from occurring? and that's i think the challenge of the 20th-- 21st century in terms of moving ahead. we still need to work on the front of curing more people but the power of prevention is enormous. lauren: you know, in a split second, one word can change everything.
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maybe i can't presume that i've got ten, 20 years left. maybe this is my last year. dr. ganz: life changes once somebody tells you, you have cancer. their perspective on life changes, their sense of vulnerability changes. and that's why i see prevention not only important in terms of reducing death rates and improving and enhancing well being, but preventing that crossing of that line from the world of the well to the world of the sick, which i think most people would like to avoid if they can.
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the human condition is a 26 part series about health and wellness. to purchase video tapes or supplementary materials... call 1-800-576-2988 or visit us online at...
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narrator: cancer, the number two killer in the united states. but, over the last ten years, death rates from cancer have been decreasing. today, more than half of all americans with cancer are being cured. and experts now believe that we are on the verge of important new breakthroughs in the war against cancer.
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people who have been diagnosed with cancer are often overwhelmed by the medical decisions that need to be made... in what seems like a relatively short period of time. cindy lauren, an avowed health enthusiast, was only 36 years old when she was diagnosed with stage iii lobular breast cancer. cindy: i was very unprepared. i didn't know the vocabulary. i didn't know the treatment protocols. at the same time, i had to deal with being stunned and afraid, and i had to learn, so i could make the best choices for myself. should i have a mastectomy or lumpectomy and radiation? should i have chemo, and how aggressive chemo? i think in many ways, in cancer treatment we're ahead of other diseases that are treated and studied. because when i, for instance, counsel a woman who's newly diagnosed with breast cancer,
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i'm able to pull off from the literature, from studies, that have just been completed or historic studies, statistics that can give them a very accurate appraisal of their likely benefit or their risks for taking certain treatments. and there are very, very few other kinds of diseases where we have that kind of information available. nowadays, treatments have changed a lot, and one of the things that have changed about it is that cancer has become more of a chronic illness than it ever was. and, as a result of that, people live with cancer over a long period of time which means that they may have many different kinds of treatments from surgery, radiation, experimental kinds of treatments and it may become an integrated part of their life. surgery, chemotherapy and radiation... still today, the principle forms of cancer treatment. during surgery, physicians remove a localized cancer...
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cutting it away from healthy tissue. since microscopic pieces of cancerous tissues are hard to detect, the surgeon usually removes tissue beyond the obvious cancer to increase the chances that all the malignant cells are removed. cindy: if i jokingly say that surgery is the easiest part of it, it's still hard on your body. i had three surgeries. radiation every day for eight weeks. go to the hospital... get tired. chemo for seven months, and everything that brings. i don't think you can go through anything like that without it having a very profound effect on your life. chemotherapy is used most often when cancer has spread to various regions of the body. patients are given anticancer drugs which destroy the cancer cells, or inhibit their ability to reproduce.
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because of the toxicity of the drugs, patients may experience side effects. cindy: suddenly my body was called upon to deal with drugs that were going to kill something that wanted to kill me. i fought pretty hard, but eventually i had to come to the conclusion that i was not made of iron. i was made of some cells, and some of those were a little sensitive to... toxic stuff. but, it was really tough for me. i lost about twenty-five pounds. losing my hair was more traumatic than i could have ever conceptualized. radiation therapy is also used to treat localized cancers... alone or in conjunction with surgery and chemotherapy. concentrated doses of high-energy particles target the cancerous tissue... killing malignant cells, and stopping their spread.
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healthy tissues nearby receive only slight doses of radiation, and generally recover quickly. this is particularly true when proton therapy is used. because the stream of positively-charged, subatomic particles can be focused more precisely, there is little damage to surrounding cells. still another approach is to implant tiny radioactive beads within the malignant tissue for several weeks, and then remove them. compared to chemo, everyone sort of feels that radiation is a walk in the park and most of the time, that's true. i found radiation was a pain in the butt because you have to go to the hospital every day, five days a week. you have to go down there, it really doesn't take very long but if somebody's late, if the machine has to cool down, so you can't really gauge your time. it made me really tired, and it...
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for me, i got a third degree burn underneath my breast where i guess one or two beams intersected. i had an open wound. that burn has still been the single most painful experience i've ever had in my life. these more traditional forms of cancer treatment are not the only options to be considered. dr. john glaspy: there are many instances where cancers don't need treatment, where we can just watch... and because we know the natural history of the disease, we know that you don't need treatment right now, or that treatment won't help you right now. doing no specific therapy is an option that ought to be talked about with many kinds of cancers that we deal with. second on the list would be good, meticulous attention to non-cancer medical care: management of pain, management of fatigue which is a huge problem for cancer patients,
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and limits the quality of their remaining lives -- and for them, and for their families. we're just now figuring that out, even though the patients have been telling it to us for a long time. cindy: i was tired. i was stunned at how things i used to te for granted... were difficult. it's hard to get across a crosswalk, when just as you get two feet into it, the "don't walk" thing starts blinking, and you're like, "that's a mile away." "i can't go any faster." or, i'd go for a bike ride and i'd feel pretty good, but all of a sudden, i'd be too tired... i'd have to stop and rest before i went home. that's probably one of the single, most profound legacies that any -- i think, any cancer treatment probably leaves you, is you're just -- it takes a tremendous amount of energy. dr. glaspy: treating low blood oxygen levels with oxygen, making sure that people are as nourished as they can be, making sure pain is well-controlled.
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all of those are part of what we have to offer. good, general medical care. a lot of times, these things get -- don't get talked about, or don't get focused upon, and they are extremely important parts of the armamentarium. what you have run in this lane, here... is the sample from the normal cells? - and this would be the tumor sample? - that's right. in the last few years, a new breed of treatment has emerged in the fight against cancer -- the manipulation of the body's own immune system to rid the body of its cancer. the umbrella term for these new, and generally experimental methods, is "biomodulation". one such treatment includes the use of gene therapy. dr. glaspy: there's tremendous progress being made now with gene therapy, which has tremendous technical limitations associated with it, that are just now being overcome by the engineers who work on these things. ovarian cancer is a particularly promising target.
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when traditional treatment methods failed to stop the advance of ovarian cancer, doreen gerber became part of an experimental study at ucla's jonsson cancer center. in this study, doctors are replacing a defective gene that is thought to cause ovarian cancer in about half of all the women with the disease. the study is designed to test this new gene therapy technology head to head against standard therapy. it's the first study of its kind in ovarian cancer. healthy genetic material is injected directly into the abdomen, carried into the system by a disarmed cold virus. side effects appear to be minimal. doreen gerber, patient: i certainly feel so much better after these treatments. i didn't lose all my hair. i'm not bloated any more. so far, the results of this experimental genetic study are encouraging.
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dr. pegram: we see no evidence of recurrence of the ovarian cancer following her gene therapy treatment. but patients will continue to be monitored to determine the long-term results of this new treatment technology. another class of drugs, known as angiogenesis-inhibiting drugs, also hold great promise in the ongoing battle with cancer. these drugs cut off the blood supply to tumors, depriving them of the nouriment necessary for growth. dr. glaspy: the angiogenesis-inhibiting drugs... there are a lot of them out there. some of them have exciting pre-clinical data. they're in early clinical trials, and they may sort of change this gameboard a lot for us. then we... get into the realm of experimental treatments, drugs like herceptin, which... attack something
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that's different about a cancer cell, and make that cell either stop growing, or make it more sensitive to treatment with the other modalities. in 1986, the scientific community learned that a gene involved in regulating cell growth had been discovered -- her2/neu. about the same time, dr. dennis slamon and his team of researchers were extracting dna from discarded cancer tissue, looking for genetic alterations that might be linked to the disease. these are the pieces of the breast tumors. dr. slamon: about 30% of patients who had breast cancer had this particular gene altered, and we recognized that it wasn't something inherited, but it was something that was occurring during the life of the individuals. in a normal cell, they control the production of protein found on a cell's surface
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that acts like an antenna, receiving signals to grow. if the gene mutates, and multiple copies are made, the additional protein that is produced calls for too much cell growth. this results in an aggressive cancer that grows and quickly spreads. but what if researchers could find an antibody that would inhibit the growth of the her2/neu gene? that was slamon's challenge. and the result, after a decade of work, is herceptin -- the first biological therapy that attacks cancer at its genetic roots. dr. slamon: what the antibody is able to do, is attach to this protein, and actually block or change that signaling, so that the signals that tell the cell to grow don't work. traditionally what we treat cancer with are nonspecific toxins -- nonspecific therapies like chemotherapy, or radiation therapy, which kills bad cells and good cells,
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hoping to kill more bad than good when we use them. if we can identify what's broken in a cell that's making a malignant cell from a normal cell, it has always been hoped that we could target that. in clinical trials involving 940 women with advanced breast cancer, herceptin produced dramatic results. for some patients, tumors disappeared. in others, herceptin stopped progression of the disease. when combined with chemotherapy, patients had a 50% better response rate than patients using chemotherapy alone. but as impressive as these results are, herceptin is not a cure for breast cancer. of the 180,000 cases of breast cancer diagnosed each year, just 60,000 involve the her2/neu gene. dr. slamon: and it's not effective en for all of those patients. so, we're working on two problems in parallel.
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number one -- those patients who have the alteration who should respond -- why aren't they responding? what can we do to make them respond? number two -- those patients who don't have the alteration, what alterations do their tumor cells have that we might be able to target? before herceptin or any other drug is approved for use by the food and drug administration, it must be rigorously tested... not only in the laboratory, but with patients. research conducted by doing clinical trials that involve patients with cancer have made extraordinary contributions to our treatment of cancer. fifty years ago, virtually all children with cancer died. now, 75 or 80%... basically are cured of their cancer, live more than five to ten years, and usually live a normal life span. that's all due to the fact that virtually every child with cancer is enrolled in a clinical trial. dr. ganz: i remember some young men, that when i first trained, with testicular cancer --
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a rare cancer, but very aggressive. and they would routinely be dying on our wards with advanced tumors. and, again, being so close in age to them, it was a very tragic situation. and all of a sudden, a new drug came on the scene. it was called cisplatinum, and it had actually been tested in some experimental trials where they took all sorts of patients with advanced cancer, and, lo and behold, a few of them with advanced testicular cancer responded. and then, before we knew it, it was incorporated into a standard treatment regimen. and, all of a sudden, we were curing this disease. some critics denounce clinical trials on the basis of their cost, the potential risk to participants, and the conflict of interest that may exist between drug companies and researchers. still, many scientists believe that such trials are essential. dr. glaspy: clinical trials are the gold standard
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for changing disease rates or outcomes with disease. these things are usually heralded by one thing that works, and causes a lot of attention, but has side effects, or isn't fully perfect. and i think that vanguard has been that the story with tamoxifen and breast cancer prevention. that was very important. it was the first time we've ever given patients a pill that lowered their cancer risk. in this case, it was breast cancer, and it lowered risk by 50%. the breast cancer prevention trial -- the first of its kind in the united states -- was designed to see whether the drug tamoxifen prevents breast cancer in women who are at high risk of developing the disease. the 13,000 women who participated in the study were randomly assigned to receive tamoxifen or a placebo. tamoxifen is a hormone. it acts as an estrogen in some tissue,
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and an anti-estrogen in another. it's an anti-estrogen in the breast. it blocks the binding of estrogen to estrogen receptors in the breast, therefore, it reduces the proliferation of cells in the breast, so it reduces the likelihood of cell turnover, and the likelihood of cancer either progressing, or actually developing. but if it is an estrogen in other tissues... it could cause endometrial cancer. debbie, here's a heartbeat that is low. it needs to be taken care of. keep an eye on her, because she's short of breath. dr. bernstein: the risk of dying from endometrial cancer, or even developing endometrial cancer, is far lower ever... than the risk of getting either a second breast cancer, or developing breast cancer. so we then want to weigh the risks and the benefits. tamoxifen did increase the women's chances of three rare but life-threatening health problems... one of which was endometrial cancer. but the incidence of this occuring was quite small.
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dr. ganz: there's still critics... who are concerned about the drug, and... they can certainly raise their questions. but i think there's no question that we looked at the safety and efficacy of tamoxifen, and found that in fact, it did reduce the risk of breast cancer. women may take that information now, and decide that they want to be treated, or they may say, "gee, you know... it's still uncertain, and i don't want to do that." the challenges of treatment, the uncertainties of the disease, are difficult for any cancer patient to endure. ms. coscarelli: cancer, because it's a life threatening illness, comes with it a whole host of psychological issues that are presented or existential issues that come up as a result of a cancer diagnosis. and i think that because of that, and because of the nature of it, and the nature of the difficult treatment that patients have to undergo in order to survive their cancer, that there are many concerns
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and problems that have to be dealt with. so, how does one react to that? well, people react to that in a variety of ways, and no two people are exactly alike. ann: vulnerability was the only choice i had. i didn't have a choice to be tough. but then, for other people, a certain amount of denial and going, "well, this is going to work." there are different human beings, and there are different paths through this. some cancer patients have found that it helps to talk with others who are battling the disease. pam: the support group has been wonderful. not only the information, but the sharing of the fears... ms. coscarelli: groups can be helpful at almost any phase. and, in fact, we have groups for different phases of the cancer. we try to keep people who are newly diagnosed together. we have groups for people who are -- after the cancer diagnosis, no longer on treatment -- who are dealing with kind of the reentry
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back into the world of work and living, and still dealing with the changes that have come about in them. i shared it with everybody, and i had a lot of support from friends, and with the groups. it's been great. we also have groups for patients who recur. and that is the reality of cancer... that, for a certain percentage of patients, their disease will recur. cindy: i was very reluctant to go to any kind of a support group because i was one of the tough ones. but the thing that i liked, aside from all the jokes, was that if i did get to that scary place where i might cry, or i might demonstrate my vulnerability, somebody who's sitting next to me totally understood and wasn't going to say, h, you're going to be fine." if i hear that one more time, that's one time too many. "uh, yeah, thank you, that's great, but right now, i don't feel like that, and i want someone who understands i don't need to hear that." ann: i all of a sudden i started going for very long walks, and spending a lot of time trying to run away
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from this whole horrible, horrible thing. you tell yourself you're supposed to be tough. you're supposed to tough this out. you're supposed to handle it well, whatever that possibly means. and it was quite clear to me that was not in the cards. as you say, for me, at least... and this is personal -- different people -- that's one of the things that a group does... is that it tells you that "noal" covers a wide spectrum. and for me, at least, "normal" meant being incredibly vulnerable, and reaching out to a group, reaching out to my husband, and it changed my life in so many ways. cindy: one of my favorite things someone says is... "well, if that happened to me, i would just die." i go, "you know... you don't get to die." you have to wake up every morning and go, "okay, today i have, doctor appointment, radiation, blah, blah, blah." and you don't get to hide from it. you can take walks all day long, but it's still there when you come home.
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ms. coscarelli: it's not just the disease that you're treating. you're treating a whole person. and that's the orientation that we've taken... how do we treat that whole person, because in reality, the disease is a small part of it. it's the repercussions of the disease that someone has to live with, and those repercussions are on the family, on the individual and their psychological status. dr. ganz: cancer is a family disease. there's no way you can exclude the family from this, and it's a rare patient who won't tell anyone about their diagnosis. occasionally it happens, but, most of the time, everyone -- the co-workers, the extended family, everyone knows about what's going on, because people do feel more comfortable about being open. but it also serves another important point, in that you need all the help you can get. our treatments are so complex. if somebody's living in a large city, and they want to go to a specialized medical center such as ours, they may have to travel twenty or thirty miles. well, you can't go back and forth
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if you've had a chemotherapy treatment on your own. somebody has to take you. so the family is critical. cindy: i hated chemo. it hurt me. it made me sick. i really was not thrilled with my oncologist, and i just remember saying one day, "i'm just not going to go. nobody can make me go. i don't like this," and through a series of misadventures, my little sister, who i think is the only person on the planet who's tougher than i am, showed up at my doorstep, and said, "we are going to chemo now." and basically hauled me by the scruff of my neck down there. and it was an incredibly great thing for her to have done. dr. ganz: patients need someone... who they can share their fears and their concerns with. and they often do this with a close friend, or a family member, and often that person becomes a real kind of sounding board for testing out... "am i being overly concerned about this?",
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or... "should i be worrying about that?" ms. coscarelli: and you can't forget the interaction between people because you're a worker, you're a parent, you're a mother, you're a sister, you're a friend. and so, in all of those things, those relationships become affected as people react to the diagnosis, and also as they attempt to interact with you and share in that experience. even young children feel the threat of cancer. pam: and it took for my youngest several years before she was ready to tell me how frightened she was that she was going to lose a mother... when she was... seven. it was very frightening, and she did come up with that several years later. so she really could remember that fear...? oh, absolutely. but was probably too afraid to express it at the time. ( sighing ) to me. i don't know if she did to other people. i know it was very nice --
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she went to a very large public school, and she found teachers that had been her own teacher, her friends, teachers of her older sister's that she didn't even know. and she would be telling them about my blood count, and working everything out, and i was very appreciative for that. spread the roots, so they fan out, instead of spiralling around in a ball. ann: my daughter keeps saying, "why do you have to know... and think about this all the time? why can't they put it all in one little package so that it can go away?" well, it doesn't go away... and there are bad things about that. and the fear is always -- it's part of my life now. but there have been... partly through the work that i've done with the group, there have been such good things. i think we all went through a process of winnowing our lives.
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i think this is something that everybody did that i saw. we all started taking a look at our lives and going, "all right. what's important?" that is not dead. it's a bud. ( laughing ) this is a dead-head. ms. coscarelli: so you don't know exactly what the factors are... but, there may be an important role that support group plays in terms of the education that's provided, the ability to share one's feelings, and how one goes about living one's life. and you all heard that those women in there were very invested in life. they were invested in living, and they were invested in taking this cancer experience, which is extraordinarily difficult, and they wanted to turn it into something good. and they did. and you have to believe somewhat in the power of that, and how that can be healing for the soul, and healing for the body. cindy: i've put a lot of energy into being a counselor for the american cancer society,
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because i think i understand... that combination of shock and dismay, and confusion that somebody has when they're first diagnosed. and i learned, if nothing else... how to listen and be there. ann: i think one of the things that happened with me, is that cancer became rephrased into something that was normal. "okay, you are alive, you have cancer, you have normal feelings. you are a normal human being, and you are... you continue." cindy: something very cool my oncologist said to me, was, "if you can take the energy that your body has put into building these tumors, and have it for yourself again, aren't you going to feel great?" and her words eventually came true... but it took a lot longer than i really ever thought it would.
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"the human condition"" is a 26-part series about health and wellness. for more information on this program, and accompanying materials, call:
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